123 Street, NYC, US 0123456789 [email protected]

爱上海,上海419论坛,上海龙凤419 - Powered by Makenna Bufu!


first_imgLATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Video of the day thumbnail With the start of the domestic rugby season in the Southern Hemisphere coming up, we head down under with Fox Sports to tour around Australia to learn more about the teams. To start us off Western Force with Tom Hocking vs Andre Pretorius. After a round of general knowledge, the boys are challenged – and this week its Beach Volleyball. Pick your teams now… Are you a Princess or a Piggy?last_img


first_img News Reporters Without Borders condemns the distribution bans imposed on recent issues of two French magazines, Jeune Afrique and Afrique Magazine, at the behest of the information ministry in Abu Dhabi because of articles regarded as offensive or overly critical.“Such measures are both arbitrary and archaic, inasmuch as the content of these publications can be accessed online,” Reporters Without Borders said.The weekly Jeune Afrique’s 5-11 April issue was censored because of a cover story headlined “Muslims and sex” with a cover photo showing a woman’s bare back. The authorities subsequently banned the April issue of the monthly Afrique Magazine, which had a report by Akram Belkaïd headlined “Dubai, end of the dream” about the emirate’s current economic and political problems. News RSF joins other NGOs in amicus brief in WhatsApp suit against NSO Group June 8, 2021 Find out more Help by sharing this information RSF_en Receive email alerts April 30, 2009 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Two French magazines censored News United Arab EmiratesMiddle East – North Africa NSO Group hasn’t kept its promises on human rights, RSF and other NGOs say United Arab EmiratesMiddle East – North Africa RSF joins Middle East and North Africa coalition to combat digital surveillance Follow the news on United Arab Emirates Organisation April 28, 2021 Find out more Reporters Without Borders condemns the distribution bans imposed on recent issues of two French magazines, Jeune Afrique and Afrique Magazine, at the behest of the information ministry in Abu Dhabi to go further December 23, 2020 Find out more Newslast_img read more


first_imgBy Marcos Ommati/Diálogo March 04, 2019 The Tonelero Battalion is the Brazilian Marine Corps special operations unit. Its troops are specifically trained to execute and plan special operations. Diálogo talked to Marine Corps Colonel Stewart da Paixão Gomes, Tonelero Battalion commander, about the Brazilian military elite squad’s participation in the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, and addressed its similarities and differences with special forces of the region, among other topics. Diálogo: How does the training of a Tonelero Battalion special operator differ from that of their counterparts in the region and the United States? Brazilian Marine Corps Colonel Stewart da Paixão Gomes, Tonelero Battalion commander: I will share my experience. I had the opportunity to serve as an exchange officer in the Paraguayan Navy’s Marine Corps in 2006, and the U.S. Marine Corps in 2014. I noticed several similarities between the special operations units, particularly regarding selection and training, which promote motivation and readiness among units. Combat experiences are the main difference, but the techniques, tactics, and procedures are very similar. The countries of the Americas carry out frequent exchanges such as combined exercises and training, and service member academic exchanges. Naturally, depending on financial and technological resources available to each country, the equipment and means employed vary greatly, as well as the material available, which directly impacts training. Diálogo: Regarding activities for law and order guarantee (GLO, in Portuguese), such as those of 2018 in which Tonelero participated in Rio de Janeiro, are they important because they are real-life situations? Col. Stewart: Yes, all real life situations contribute to personnel development. Particularly in GLO activities, I noticed that operators and planners require specific preparation to align activities with rules of engagement stricter than what is typically expected during conflict situations. Diálogo: Why? Col. Stewart: Rules of engagement in a GLO operation comply with Brazilian law and not with international humanitarian law. Military needs should not determine actions, just as they don’t differentiate between criminals and law-abiding citizens. We can’t think in terms of the enemy or plan actions to undermine or destroy. We must adjust our capabilities toward repressive and overt activities to fight social conflict situations, where the main goal is to protect our forces and arrest criminals. Diálogo: Can you describe the responsibilities as far as safety during major events, such as the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games? Col. Stewart: At the time, there was a need for collaboration and integration between the ministries of Defense and Justice, and the Brazilian Intelligence Agency, with the creation of the Integrated Counterterrorism Committee. The military, federal, state, and municipal public security agencies coordinated activities, as well as agencies associated with public planning, transportation, and the organization of these events. In addition, the Ministry of Defense integrated the capabilities of the three forces (Navy, Army, and Air Force), and coordinated the special operations troops, deploying them in regions where events were scheduled. This way, they could assign skilled personnel to carry out counterterrorism operations in each event’s host city. To that extent, the Tonelero Battalion participated in activities with general staff representatives responsible for planning and carrying out regional activities, as well as establishing amphibious command groups (GRUCANF, in Portuguese) in the cities of Salvador and Rio de Janeiro. Diálogo: What was the focus of the mission? Col. Stewart: Well, our country doesn’t have a history of terror attacks, but the Olympic games do. For this reason, GRUCANF and other groups (service members and police officers) brought special operations capabilities to the area’s defense coordinators, such as facility recovery or hostage rescue. As such, prior to those major events, units conducted simulations and trainings, combining activities in three areas: defense, public safety, and intelligence. They carried out various anti-terrorism activities (defense maneuvers) locally, providing counterterrorism-capable troops. The forces’ deployment and their activities mitigated the risks and increased responsiveness across the Brazilian territory. Diálogo: Do you think that this interoperability was the main lesson learned? Col. Stewart: Absolutely. In addition to integrated planning, which participating departments and agencies developed jointly, there were many joint training and exchange activities among those involved. They were aware of the importance of safety and our responsibility for a safe outcome in our country. The interaction between people and systems was a unique opportunity for mutual knowledge exchange and improved communication between various sectors. Exchange activities intensified. For instance, this battalion developed phases and trainings for some of the states’ civil and military police. Additionally, we provided continuous support to longstanding partners, such as the Special Operations Battalion, BOPE, and Special Resources Coordination, CORE, in Rio de Janeiro, to whom we offered firearms training, inflatable boat use, swimming, climbing, and fast-rope techniques (from helicopters).last_img read more


first_imgGolden State Warriors DeMarcus Cousins Cousins scored 11 points, with 10 rebounds and six assists in the Warriors 109-104 NBA Finals Game 2 win over the Toronto Raptors. Cousins had just three points and only played eight minutes in Game 1 as he returned from being on the disabled list with a torn left quadriceps muscle. Cousins played for 28 minutes in Toronto tonight.He was injured during Game 2 of the Western Conference playoffs against the Los Angeles Clippers.Stephen Curry was the …last_img


first_imgThe Directorate of Priority Crimes Investigation in the South African Police Service will tackle organised crime andcorruption. (Image: SA Police Service)Janine Erasmus Find out more about using MediaClubSouthAfrica.com materialSouth Africa’s new elite crime investigation unit is ready to roll – so says Anwar Dramat, the head of the Directorate of Priority Crimes Investigation (DPCI), which is to crack down on corruption and organised and commercial crime.Struggle veteran Dramat was appointed as crime’s new worst enemy in May 2009. The DPCI replaces the Directorate of Special Operations, better known as the Scorpions.Dramat was speaking at the second anniversary celebrations of the Primedia Crimeline, a service that enables citizens to send tip-offs to the police via anonymous text messages, or online submissions.The latest statistics on the Crimeline website show that an impressive 749 suspected criminals have been arrested so far with the help of the public.With the South African Police Services Amendment Act and the National Prosecuting Authority Amendment Act signed into law earlier in 2009, the DCPI will start its duties on 1 July, on which date the Scorpions will officially cease to exist.The new unit will take over the investigation of 639 cases currently on the Scorpions’ files.Whereas the Scorpions were a division of the National Prosecuting Authority of South Africa, the DPCI is part of the police force.Crushing organised crimeThe formation of the DPCI is seen by many as a new era in unbiased crime-fighting in South Africa.South Africa’s new top cop reaffirmed his mandate from government, which was to “crush organised crime without mercy, and deal with the criminals, regardless of their stature or standing.”“The DPCI is taking shape,” said Dramat. “We are hopeful that later next month criminals will start to realise our ability not only to bite, but also to chew. We are strong, capable and well-resourced to hunt any criminal, anywhere, at any time.”Dramat added that he hoped for a final staff complement of between 600 and 800, drawn from the South African Police Service and the Scorpions. The DPCI will also work closely with other government departments such as the South African Revenue Service, the Financial Intelligence Centre and the Department of Home Affairs.South Africans can begin to rest a little easier with the knowledge that the DPCI is “ready to enter the battlefield”.ExperiencedDramat is the former deputy provincial commissioner of police in the Western Cape and, said police minister Nathi Mthethwa at the announcement of Dramat as DPCI chief, is respected for his dedication to upholding the law as well as his understanding of organised crime and success in undercover operations.He spent about eight years in the prison cells of Robben Island and also worked underground for the ruling African National Congress.Dramat has served the police since 1995 and is confident that under his direction crime in South Africa will decline.“I commit myself to work for all South Africans to ensure that our country finally eradicates the scourge of fraud corruption and organised crime,” he said, accepting his appointment with humility.“The purpose of establishing the Directorate for Priority Crime Investigation is exactly to enhance the combating and investigation of priority crimes,” said Mthethwa, adding that all prospective members who make it past the rigorous first stage of selection will be thoroughly screened in terms of security and integrity standards.Smothered stingThe Scorpions, a tough unit of some 500 police as well as financial, forensic and intelligence experts, were controversially dissolved by then-president Kgalema Motlanthe in January 2009, after months of opposition from the public and private sectors as well as citizens.Johannesburg businessman Hugh Glenister organised a massive petition and eventually brought a case to the bench of the Constitutional Court in an effort to stop legislation that would disband the Scorpions. Glenister lost his case on the grounds that the Constitutional Court did not deem it appropriate or justified to intervene in the legislative process, as that is only warranted if legislation would cause considerable irreversible harm.During the eight years in which the Scorpions were active, they focused on particularly serious crime in South Africa, such as drug trafficking, diamond smuggling and fraud. They spared nobody, and on a number of occasions exposed high-profile names in their quest for justice.The Scorpions notoriously chased a corruption case against President Jacob Zuma for eight years, only to see the charges dropped shortly before the country’s general election in April amid counter-accusations that the unit had been misused for political purposes.They also targeted Zuma’s financial adviser Schabir Shaik, suspended national police chief Jackie Selebi and activist Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, among others.The Scorpions were extremely effective in their duty. Their reported success rate in convictions varies, but ranges between 85% and 94%.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Contact Janine Erasmus at  [email protected] storiesElite SA police stop ship’s mutinyCrime in South Africa Cracking down on 2010 crime5 000 new police for South AfricaUseful linksSouth African Police ServiceNational Prosecuting Authority – Scorpions pageCrimelineSafer Placeslast_img read more


first_imgWeighing in at more than 3.5 tons, the new statue of Nelson Rolihlala Mandela unveiled on Monday 16 December 2013 at the Union Buildings shows the father of the nation stretching out his arms.The Nelson Mandela statue at the Union Buildings in Pretoria is one of South Africa’s national heritage sites. (Image: South African Tourism)Brand South Africa reporterA nine-metre-tall bronze statue of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was unveiled at the Union Buildings in Pretoria on the Day of Reconciliation, bringing to a close the official 10-day mourning period for the much loved former state president, who died at his Johannesburg home on 5 December 2013.President Jacob Zuma, who oversaw the proceedings of Monday 16 December 2013, said the Mandela statue would act as a constant reminder for the nation to maintain Madiba’s values of unity, reconciliation, compassion and ubuntu.“The statue will forever remind us of Madiba’s towering vision and stature. It will remind us of his commitment, his leadership and his dedication to the struggle against apartheid. It will forever remind us of his commitment to an improved quality of life for all,” he said.Here is a collection of interesting facts about the new Mandela statue:The R8-million statue at the Union Buildings was commissioned in June 2013.It is 9-metres high, the tallest figurative bronze sculpture of Mandela. The tallest memorial is Marco Cianfanelli’s steel construction at the capture site near Howick in KwaZulu Natal, which is 9.48-metres tall. Cianfanelli’s sculpture commemorates the arrest of Mandela in 1962.Made out of bronze, the statue weighs 3.5 tons. The stainless steel armature inside the statue weighs an additional 800kg.The “wingspan” of the statue – from fingertip to fingertip – is eight metres.It was initially commissioned by the National Heritage Council, an agency of the Department of Arts and Culture, as part of the celebrations to mark the centenary of the Union Buildings, South Africa’s seat of government, in Pretoria.The statue is situated at the Union Buildings, the same place where Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa’s first democratically elected president in 1994. Zuma has since declared the Union Buildings a national heritage site.South African sculptors André Prinsloo and Ruhan Janse van Vuuren were responsible for creating the statue. The artists are part of a stable of sculptors who have been working on various projects for the government’s Long Walk to Freedom project.In the past Prinsloo and Janse van Vuuren worked together on the sculptures of Chief Langalibalele and Dr Abdullah Abdurahman.According to Prinsloo’s site, the sculptors considered various poses like the Raised Fist Salute, but in the Spirit of Reconciliation the current open arm pose was suggested. This was approved and accepted by the client.The project was overseen by Dali Tambo, the son of struggle veteran Oliver Tambo, who was a close friend of Mandela’s. Tambo is the chief executive of Koketso Growth, which managed the project on behalf of the NHC.The project received final approval in mid-July 2013, giving the artists just four months to complete the giant statue. “We finished it in record time,” Prinsloo said in an interview with IOL.The statue was cast in 147 pieces at four different foundries before it was assembled in Cape Town.Metal work and engineering was carried out with assistance from the Knight brothers at Sculpture Casting Services Foundary in Cape Town. The legs and arms were cast by the company’s branch in Nottingham road in KwaZulu-Natal and transported to the site by flat-bed truck.It took three weeks to complete constructing the giant statue with a complementary team of 35 workers, Prinsloo said.The statue shows a smiling Mandela, with his arms stretched out and his hands open, as if to embrace the nation. “You will notice that in all the statues that have been made of Madiba, he is raising his fist and at times stretching it. That derives from the slogan of the ANC,” Zuma explained at the unveiling. “This one is different from many. He is stretching out his hands. He is embracing the whole nation. You shouldn’t say this is not Madiba because we know him with his one [raised] hand.”The design was approved by a committee including Paul Mashatile, the minister of arts and culture, Tambo, and representatives from the National Heritage Council, Prinsloo said.Prinsloo told Brand South Africa that the artists considered his open arms not only as a gesture of reconiciliation, but also one of bestowing a blessing. “Mandela is looking down on the people in front of him, blessing them.” It is also in the spirit of the hymn, God bless Africa, he said.The Mandela statue stand where a figure of former prime minister James Barry Hertzog used to stand. Hertzog was prime minister from 1924-1939. “Following an exhaustive consultation process, and in the spirit of reconciliation that our country has become renowned for, the representatives of Hertzog agreed that his statue be relocated to another spot in the Union Buildings in order to make way for Madiba’s statue,” Zuma said.“I feel honoured to have been asked to work on a statue of Madiba who have actually gone through a lot during his lifetime,” Prinsloo said in an interview with SAnews.“After serving 27 years in prison, Madiba walk out smiling and fully embracing everyone including those who had locked him up in jail. He was not angry and never thought retaliating, so a nation, I think this statue must always remind us to embrace each other.”This article was originally posted on 17 December 2013.Sources: Fotoman Photography, IOL, André Prinsloo Scuplture, and South African Government News Agency.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa materiallast_img read more


first_img Nice few items although not sure what some of them. Nice few items although not sure what some of them are or how to use them as there was no instuctions or pictures on the pack. Styling tool – but unless you’re really clever it’s best if someone else does it for you. Found this a nifty hair styling tool – but unless you’re really clever it’s best if someone else does it for you. Also need long hair, not longish. Good item , good delivery,instructions not v clear. I’ve watched videos of how to do this, but to do it properly, you have to be experienced or have someone do it for you. I’m still talking my boyfriend into braiding my hair with this, not sure that he’s that interested though. Not sure what to say, i want to like it and use it but the face that there are no usable instructions is a nuisance, i guess i will have to google it. Also not sure of how easy it will be to do this on myself, think you need to see what you are doing and i don’t have eyes on the back of my head. Fashion french hair braiding tool roller. Great kit really simple to use. She has gone to school every day with waves in her hain. It would be a lovely product however i can’t get my fingers to use it. Its a lot harder than it looks on videos. The instructions arent very good. They could explain better how to use it. The instructions arent very good. They could explain better how to use it but delivery was exerlent. A bit difficult to master but once done really easy to use – find it easier to do while. Find the first bit a bit difficult to master but once done really easy to use – find it easier to do while my daughters hair is wet – lasted the day at school inc pe. For the price don’t see why people are moaning. The product is one piece of plastic, comes without instructions so you have to google it and watch youtube videos if you want to have any chance of being able to do it yourself. Not as easy as i though, although for £1 i guess you get what you pay for. A little difficult needs practice, made well. Tried this in my granddaughters hair it’s a bit fidderly it’s best to clip in before you start then take the clip out once completed, just takes practice. Bought for granddaughter and so far not heard anything. Don’t think could be done by yourself. Wonderful product or service superb consumer. I didn’t get the primary purchase but cherry from wide fashion was so handy and sorted the dilemma out. Good solution wonderful buyer company.Individually i couldn’t get the gang of how to use it on myself – perhaps greater when working with on another person else.Seems to be uncomplicated enough to use but i havent found it. Purchased as a gift, if i had lengthy hair i would have stored it,seems to be effortless ample to use but i havent noticed it tried.Appears effortless but only if you are utilized to these i. My spouse likes this,but is nonetheless seeking to function out how to use it,asked me to give it a test,but gave up at 3rd endeavor,looks easy but only if you are made use of to these i suppose,still advocate it for price by itself. The instructions that are printed are really fuzzy, tiny pictures; but straight forward tutorials are available through youtube. You basically overlap the hair over the tool and tuck into place. The tool stays in place and is comfortable to wear. Please note, this white coloured tool is best used on light coloured hair as it can be seen in parts through the hair as the day progresses. There are dark coloured tools also available through amazon. This is best used on long hair (past the shoulders) as the tools is made of a thick plastic and cannot easily be cut to length. French braid is now a doddle. Top tip, do it when your hair is wet it’s easier. Great price and great product. Instructions were not very good so i had to use you tube to find out how to use it. Product itself is fantastic. Really quite hard to use and for me more of a gimmick i don’t think i would use this again but that is because i am using it on myself if i were to be using it someone else it may be a different story i find it hard to use alone. a bit difficult to master but once done really easy to use – find it easier to do while Fashion French Hair Braiding Tool RollerLove the productGood item, good deliveryFrench braid is now a doddleGreat product fantastic customerFashion French Hair Braiding Tool Roller With Magic hair Twist Styling Bun MakerHow to use: The hair on the hair braider, and take a strand of hair into the side in the S-type, and so on, while aboutQuick look at the end of a fixed time or find something about the disc cover hair tail on itlast_img read more


first_imgTravel comparison site Kayak just opened access to its search data. Best known for aggregating travel deals on roundtrip flights, hotels and rental cars, Kayak is now offering the public a peek under the hood. The company is laying bare its most popular destinations and searches via a new trends page. The site offers users a look at what people are searching for, where they’re searching from and the most searched hotels in the company’s top 50 most popular cities. With the travel industry slowly recovering from what has been a tough two years, this data can go a long way towards reinvigorating businesses. In addition to the most popular searches and destinations, Kayak is also offering users a look at the Kayak Travel Index. The data from the Index tells users how much the average traveler is willing to spend to visit a particular destination. While economic stability would affect many of these trends, short spikes are often more likely related to peak season rates and seasonal factors. For example, in mid July travelers were willing to pay 25% more for a trip to Seattle, but since then as the weather cools so does the willingness to spend. Meanwhile, the Los Angeles Travel Index shows a completely different set of travel spikes. With information from 404 travel sites including Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz, and information on more than 150,000 hotels, Kayak trends offers a great snapshot into the demographics of a destination’s most frequent visitors. Says CTO Paul English, “People have conducted hundreds of millions of travel searches on KAYAK in the past year, generating a tremendous amount of data on travel demand trends. We’re happy to make this information available to the travel press and to the general public.” Tags:#Trends#web Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…center_img Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting dana oshiro 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more


first_imgGreen building has become a poster child for everything from solar panels to bamboo flooring. While all aspects are of green building are important, the first step towards a green home is to get the core systems working properly.At Sustainable Spaces, when we work with homeowners to develop a roadmap for retrofitting their houses, we emphasize getting the basics, or the infrastructure, done right. It might not be sexy, but it is the core of the house. After looking at the basics, we focus on major systems, such as heating systems, water heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. Once the house is operating efficiently, with good air quality and comfort, then we look at properly sized renewable energy systems such as solar and wind. These systems will be much smaller (and more affordable) because the house now uses much less energy.But what can a homeowner do right now that will have an impact on their energy load, without involving a major home remodel? Here’s my top five list of improvements anyone can make to get on the path of energy efficiency, at a reasonable cost. Keep in mind that it’s important to accomplish the to-do list in the order they are presented below. For instance, there is no point in insulating before you’ve reduced air leakage.1) Get a home energy audit – Start by evaluating your entire house as a system. It’s not about products; it’s about results. A building science-based audit will help you create a plan to fix your home based on what will have the maximum results. And PG&E will even help underwrite this audit! See EnergyStar.gov for more info2) Reduce air leakage – Heated or air-conditioned air leaks out through gaps, cracks and holes in your home’s walls and ceilings and means your energy dollars are floating away. Sealing these penetrations is the most cost effective way to save energy. Most leaks are between your house and your attic. Read a Fine Homebuilding article on the topic here.3) Seal your ducts – In California, the average duct systems (the tubes that move heat from your furnace to your house), has 30% leakage. When you figure that 40% to 50% of your home’s energy goes through this system, you can see that it has a huge impact on your bill. This system is also responsible for your home’s comfort and indoor air quality. Leaky ducts bring in dirty air from all the worse places to replace the air that escapes. Poor design and leaks mean that there is imbalanced distribution that results in cold and hot rooms, and general discomfort. When sealing duct work, use mastic not duct tape.4) Add insulation – Adding insulation should happen after you air seal (or air sealing becomes very hard to do later). Generally adding insulation to the attic is the easiest and has the fastest return. You should have 10 inches of insulation or R-30+. We recommend using blow-in cellulose (recycled newspapers). If you want to do it yourself and use batts, try to get blue jean batts – but remember that you must install the insulation very carefully, as most insulation only performs at 50% of its rated value due to air gaps, compressions, and other installation defects. When adding a layer of batts to an attic, lay it perpendicular to the first layer to help reduce air gaps.5) Replace light bulbs / appliances / plug-loads – Compact Florescent Bulbs (CFLs) use 25% the energy for the same amount of light. Replacing a 15 year old refrigerator with an energy star model can cut your bill by 60%. That’s a pretty substantial amount in two steps. Plug loads can be negated with a power strip plugged into a switchable wall outlet.Not everyone can make their home 100% green and zero energy in the ï¬rst-pass, but by creating a comprehensive plan homeowners can begin the path towards sustainability and see real results on almost any budget.And remember, a green house does not necessarily mean it is full of fancy new technology. There’s usually 30% to 40% waste just in these fundamental issues that don’t need fancy solutions to resolve them!–Matt Golden is president of Sustainable Spaces, a home energy performance company in San Francisco, Califlast_img read more


first_imgAnyway, just remember that cold air is dry air. The more cold, outdoor air you bring into the home, the drier the indoor air will be.What’s the best relative humidity in winter?Ah, such a tricky question. The standard answer in a case like this is: It depends.It depends on:Climate zoneHow good your building enclosure (insulation and air barrier) isHow much moisture you generate indoorsHow much you ventilate the homeHow many times your youngest kid has complained about being shocked by the eldest. (I wouldn’t know anything about that. Static electricity hadn’t been imported to the Gulf Coast when I was growing up.)Based on what we know from the last section, the colder the climate you live in, the drier your indoor air can be. That also means that you’ll have colder surfaces that can absorb moisture. That’s when you start having problems with “accidental dehumidification,” such as condensation on your windows.But it can be worse than that, too. You could get frost on your ceiling, like in the home shown in Image #2, below. The problem there was cold, windy weather hitting part of the house where the insulation had blown back away from the soffit vents.But hey, at least the moisture problem here is visible. It’s worse when it happens inside the walls, as in the photo of the moldy interior of a wall shown in Image #3, below. If you put enough water vapor in contact with cold surfaces, this is what can happen. And your really don’t want that in your walls.First, let’s lay out a general rule for the ideal indoor relative humidity: You want to keep the indoor relative humidity low enough to prevent visible and invisible moisture problems and high enough to prevent excess static electricity or dry skin.On the low end, you probably don’t want to go lower than 30% to 35% relative humidity (RH). That’s a little dry but not too bad. Again, the colder the climate, the lower you’ll probably want that number. In a moderate climate, you might want to aim for a low end of 40%.On the high end, if you go to 45% RH during the winter in a cold climate, you’re pushing your luck unless you have a really good building enclosure. In warmer climates, you can go higher, and you will as the weather changes, but 50% RH is a good target.Chris Schumacher, who works with John Straube at RDH Building Science Laboratories in Waterloo, told me recently about a rule of thumb they use up in Canada. When the temperature is 40°F, keep the RH at 40% or below. When the temperature is 30°F or below, keep the RH at 30% or below.Now, having said that, if you have a really energy efficient house, say a Passive House, with a great building enclosure in a cold climate (think R-40 walls and low infiltration), you can go higher. Maybe 40%. Perhaps even higher. The good thing about a great enclosure is that it decouples you somewhat from the big changes that happen outdoors.What should you do if the indoor relative humidity is too high or too low?If the home is too dry, people often resort to installing a humidifier. I’m not going to say they’re never necessary, but if you have an airtight, well-insulated home, you almost certainly won’t need a humidifier. The internally generated moisture will usually keep the indoor conditions where you want them (unless you’re the pasta-eating bathtub entrepreneur). If you live in an extremely cold climate, even a great building enclosure may not keep your RH high enough, though.If you don’t have a Passive House and the air is too dry, the first thing to do is air sealing. The leakier your house, the more of that cold, dry outdoor air you’re bringing in and the lower your indoor relative humidity will be. Seal it up and then see where you are before deciding on a humidifier. A humidifier is usually a bandaid for a leaky home.If your relative humidity is too high in winter, yeah, you could install a dehumidifier, but there are better ways to solve the problem. First, take a look at the sources of water vapor you’re generating indoors. Maybe you should run that bath fan when you take a shower and turn on the range hood when you’re cooking. Also, remember that cold air is dry air. If the indoor humidity is too high, add some more ventilation air to cut the humid air with dry air.What have you found to be the ideal indoor relative humidity in your location? Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, energy consultant, RESNET-certified trainer, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. Check out his in-depth course, Mastering Building Science at Heatspring Learning Institute, and follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. It was a little crackly around here recently. We had a cold spell in Atlanta, with high temperatures right around the freezing point. As a result, the indoor relative humidity dropped and we got some static electricity.Even better, what I call the Southern Lights were visible at night, too. (I’ve never called it that before, but hey, a man named Allison is entitled to make things up on the spot.) That’s when the microfiber blanket on the bed lights up every time I move.Why is the humidity low in winter?I’ve written about the reason for this before. Basically, it’s that cold air is dry air. The lower the temperature, the less water can exist in the vapor state. You may have a high relative humidity, but the actual amount of water vapor in the air (sometimes called absolute humidity but better characterized by something called the humidity ratio) will drop as the temperature drops.Cold air is dry air. When that cold air outdoors comes into your home, via either infiltration or ventilation, it mixes with your indoor air. The result is less overall water vapor in the indoor air, too.Of course, you have to consider the humidity-generating activities in the home, too. If you work from home and the bathtub is your office and you’ve got a big pot of pasta going every day, your indoor humidity may be too high, especially in an airtight home that’s not overventilated. RELATED ARTICLESRelative Humidity Doesn’t Tell You How Humid the Air IsPreventing Water Entry Into a HomeMoisture Sources, Relative Humidity, and MoldHow to Use the Psychrometric ChartAll About DehumidifiersRating Windows for Condensation ResistanceMoisture Sources, Relative Humidity, and MoldWhy Is It So Humid In Here? Q&A: What is the ideal indoor relative humidity for a building and occupants?last_img read more