Throughout U.S. history, the question of how much secrecy is justified in a democratic government has been a subject of recurring debate. It is an issue that has long absorbed Mary Graham, co-director of the Transparency Policy Project at the Kennedy School of Government. In her new book, “Presidents’ Secrets: The Use and Abuse of Hidden Power,” Graham traces how some presidents have intentionally or inadvertently cloaked governmental actions in excessive secrecy, and how others have helped usher in greater openness.The Gazette spoke to Graham about her view that presidents and the nations they lead suffer from overly secret policies, and the prospects for transparent government under President Trump.GAZETTE: Your books seems a clarion call reminding us both how important and how fragile transparency and openness is to a democratic government. What makes you passionate about that message?GRAHAM: All my work has been about the informed public, really from the time I was a high school and college journalist. I was on The Crimson at Harvard at a time when the University was pretty opaque, much more so than it is now, and so one thing we tried to do was to report to students and faculty what was going on behind closed doors. Then as a young lawyer I worked in one of the most secretive parts of the federal government, the Office of Management and Budget, where it was not supposed to be known how the fights within the executive branch were being settled. And then in the early 2000s I worked with Archon Fung and David Weil to start the Transparency Policy Project at the Kennedy School. My motivation for doing that was that I didn’t think anybody should die for lack of information. I had studied auto safety, for example, and I could see that the experts in the government knew about safety defects often years before that information got to the public.My view has always been the public is used to imperfect information. We get weather forecasts every day that tell us probability — it may rain or it may not rain — and I would think that now should be a time when we trust the people with the information, however imperfect it is.GAZETTE: Excessive secrecy has been a problem throughout our history. Are we doomed to keep repeating ourselves?GRAHAM: No, times are changing. As I say in the book, we’ve changed our minds several times about secrecy. A lot of it has to do with the character of the president who’s in office at the time there’s a crisis, or change in technology as we’re having now.What we learned from the Bush and Obama administrations is that secrecy no longer works. By that, I mean secret policies. There has probably been no more important a time for secret operations. The intelligence agencies have been given a new mission after 9/11, which is to prevent attack. To do that, they need to identify networks, and it’s a very, very difficult task. But that Cold War idea that some policies were going to be open and some policies the American people would never know about, assassination plots or bribery schemes or election fixing — I think what we learned from Bush and Obama is that that no longer works.When President Obama tried to keep the phone records program that was initiated by President George W. Bush, he did everything that was appropriate for 20th-century limits on presidential secrecy. He informed congressional leaders, he worked with the Foreign Intelligence Court. What he did not do was to inform the American public until it leaked. And my conclusion on that and issues like the use of new weapons like drones and cyber attacks, is that it no longer works to keep major changes in policy secret, especially when they affect Americans’ rights and values.You can imagine President Obama giving one of his very good, thoughtful talks to the American people about the need for something like the phone records data, and people understanding that, but instead, keeping it secret, he really ceded leadership to the media and to his opponents in Congress because they then controlled the timing and the content of how that program was explained.GAZETTE: After 9/11, the American public seemed to accept greater restrictions on freedom and more secrecy in government as a price for security. Are we now moving in the other direction?GRAHAM: The Cold War assumption was that in order to have security, especially in times of crisis, Americans needed to give up some liberty. Of course during the Cold War they gave up that liberty without knowing it — surveillance policies which got out of hand and were applied to Civil Rights leaders and war protesters. The idea was that that was necessary and the idea was that the president needed to be more powerful.But that was not the founding idea at the Constitutional Convention or in George Washington’s understanding of government. I think we’re getting back toward the founding idea, which is that secrecy would be carefully circumscribed. In the 1780s the survival of the nation was in doubt: There were foreign threats, the domestic economy had collapsed, and there were bankrupt farmers rioting. Yet at that time they decided not that they should have an all-powerful president. It was an idea of the Founders that the president’s powers particularly should be limited in that time of emergency. It was also their idea and the insistence of the states in ratifying the Constitution that individual rights had to be explicitly protected. This was a time where the threats were much worse than they are now and yet the states are saying in this kind of security emergency we must assure that there will be freedom of the press, freedom of the religion, freedom of assembly, and particularly important today, privacy of individuals in their homes and of their papers.Americans have been known to give up their liberty in bits and pieces when they are asked. What they don’t like are surprises when it comes to their rights. … I think open debate, which doesn’t always produce good results, is the best we’ve got, because it’s the best technique we have to assure that the policies are legitimate and that Americans can trust their government.GAZETTE: Based on the first weeks of President Trump’s administration, are you worried or sanguine about where we are headed in terms of an open government?GRAHAM: What is unique about President Trump is the odd combination of swamping the public with distracting information and at the same time practicing particularly dangerous kinds of secrecy. So there was news in his [Feb. 16] press conference, but it was buried under an avalanche of invective. That is not being considerate and respectful to the American public who are waiting for foreign policy, who are waiting for a plan to help working people. His tweets are not transparency and these insults and this name-calling, governance by name-calling, doesn’t work. In addition we are seeing that he is not willing to make routine disclosures about his taxes or his health. He has a tendency to be angry at people who have different points of view. And I think we see from our history is that that’s a sign that this president is going to be very tempted to do things behind closed doors to avoid democratic debate.It’s not easy to try to persuade others that your point of view on international relations or your point of view on immigration is the right one, but that is the job of the president. He governs by persuasion — he can’t govern by fiat.Interview was edited and condensed.
March 1, 2021
Harvard University announced today that it has received a gift from College alumnus David E. ’93 and Stacey L. Goel, which will make it possible to reimagine the University’s arts campus and envision a future home for the American Repertory Theater (A.R.T.). The Goels’ $100 million gift kicks off the University’s effort to fund a state-of-the-art research and performance center in Allston that will enhance the arts community at Harvard as well as in Greater Boston.“David and Stacey have given us a gift that will undoubtedly inspire support for one of our most exciting projects to advance the arts at Harvard,” said President Larry Bacow. “The A.R.T. is a magnet for extraordinarily talented individuals who change the way we understand the world through live theater. It has thrived under the leadership of Diane Paulus, and the new space we envision will be a magnet for artists and audiences, as well as students, faculty, and staff. Allston will be home to one of the nation’s great incubators of creativity. We are so grateful to the Goels for their commitment to nurturing and connecting knowledge through one of humanity’s most enduring mediums.”Goel, co-founder and managing general partner of Waltham-based Matrix Capital Management Company LP, and his wife, Stacey, said in a statement that their gift is intended to honor David’s parents, “whose love, mentorship, and sacrifice” made his education possible. Goel said they were inspired by President Bacow’s vision to more completely integrate Harvard’s arts programs across the University’s disciplines, and by a shared belief that “the arts humanize the pursuit and application of knowledge.”“There is something almost metaphorically perfect about the architectural license to build a center for the arts at the nucleus of Harvard’s expanding campus, a physical representation of the idea that each set of academic disciplines is strengthened by proximity, dialogue, and contribution to the same tapestry of human understanding,” said David Goel. He added that he and his wife were eager to support the notion of “a versatile theater space that can be reshaped as appropriate to express and share the abundant ideas originated by the College, the American Repertory Theater, and Harvard’s community already at home in Allston — and connect them through music, dance, theater, debate, lectures, conferences, and dialogue in any format.”Goel said he was impressed by the extraordinary arts practice and scholarship of the A.R.T. under the leadership of Tony Award-winning Terrie and Bradley Bloom Artistic Director Paulus. “Diane radiates intelligence, awareness, and a kind of creativity so giving that it inspires those around her. She is a generational talent” who has had “a revolutionary impact on Harvard and the broader culture,” he said.The A.R.T. has been the professional theater on Harvard’s campus since its founding in 1980. It draws artists from around the world to develop musicals, plays, and operas inspired and enriched by its partnerships with faculty members and Schools across the University. It catalyzes discourse, interdisciplinary collaboration, and creative exchange among academic departments, institutions, students, and faculty members, acting as a conduit between its community of artists and the University. Under the leadership of Paulus and executive producer Diane Borger, the A.R.T. is a leading force in American theater, producing groundbreaking work for Greater Boston and beyond. As it pursues its mission to expand the boundaries of theater, the A.R.T. includes the audience as an active and essential partner.“The vision for a new research and performance center will reflect the A.R.T.’s core commitments to artistic excellence, rigorous pedagogy, civic leadership, global engagement, inquiry, and inclusion,” said Paulus. “We are excited by the transformative possibilities that come with the Goels’ astoundingly generous gift. It will allow us to envision a sustainably designed center that encourages creative risk-taking in open, democratic spaces that will feel welcoming and porous to the city.”Dedicated to making theater accessible, the A.R.T. actively engages more than 5,000 local students and a network of community members in project-based partnerships, workshops, conversations with artists, and other enrichment activities, both at the theater and across Greater Boston. The A.R.T. has been honored with many distinguished awards, including the Tony Award for best new play for “All the Way” (2014); consecutive Tonys for best revival of a musical for “Pippin” (2013) and “The Gershwins’ Porgy and Bess” (2012), both of which Paulus directed, and 16 other Tonys since 2012; a Pulitzer Prize; a Jujamcyn Prize for outstanding contribution to the development of creative talent; and the Regional Theatre Tony Award.As part of the University’s plan for its expanding campus, and adjacent to the athletic facilities on North Harvard Street, the new center will anchor Harvard’s arts presence in Allston alongside the Business School, the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and the transformative science, entrepreneurship, and discovery activities already underway. The ArtLab, a new hub for arts innovation on North Harvard Street in Allston, was completed in January. It will complement arts programming offered through the Harvard Allston Ed Portal and the Office for the Arts’ ceramics studio on Western Avenue.“David and Stacey Goel’s generous gift presents Boston’s artists of all ages an opportunity to collaborate and learn alongside world-renowned talent in their own neighborhood,” said Boston Mayor Martin J. Walsh. “I am grateful for the opportunities that have developed through the city’s partnership with Harvard University and look forward to seeing how the A.R.T. will be able to build on our relationship in Allston and beyond in new creative ways.”The Goels’ gift also will support arts programs throughout the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, including new University uses for the Loeb Drama Center, as academic offerings in the arts continue to grow. The Goels also noted their intention to commemorate and support the tenure of Claudine Gay, the Edgerley Family Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, as “a leader who is tireless, uncompromising in her integrity, and dedicated to the relevance and timelessness of our institution.” David Goel said they were honored to help advance Gay’s vision to “nurture the creative passions of Harvard’s undergraduate and graduate students, and continue Harvard’s long tradition of excellence.”The number of concentrators and secondary field students in Theater, Dance & Media has increased significantly since its first year. Similarly, concentrator numbers have risen steadily in both Music and Visual and Environmental Studies, with new courses and curricular offerings added in those areas. Gay will begin a review to evaluate and accommodate growth in these programs and to assess the increased need for teaching, rehearsal, and performance spaces.“I am extremely grateful to David and Stacey for this extraordinary level of support for the arts at Harvard, especially coming at a time when faculty and student demand is driving growth of our programs across the board,” said Gay. “This gift will allow the Faculty of Arts and Sciences to reimagine how Harvard’s campus supports arts practice — ensuring our programs continue to grow and thrive and to realize the incredible opportunities and benefits of engaging artists in research and teaching across our many disciplines. Building on the A.R.T.’s reputation as a world-class producing theater, a new center in Allston will also expand the opportunities for collaboration with Harvard undergraduates and artists from our surrounding community and around the world.”The University will continue to assess its design, fundraising, and planning needs in the coming months, and the A.R.T. will continue to produce work at the Loeb for several years while plans develop.
January 26, 2021
Vice president for public affairs and communications Paul J. Browne will retire June 30, University President Fr. John Jenkins said in a press release today.“Paul came to Notre Dame with a love for the University instilled by his immigrant parents,” Jenkins said in the release. “After eight years of significant contributions, he leaves with the respect, gratitude and affection of me and so many more of his Notre Dame colleagues.”Browne has been leading his division for almost eight years to improve the University’s reputation across the nation and the world. He coordinated the first presentation by a Notre Dame faculty member to the Religion News Associations’ annual conference and helped organize presentations of the Notre Dame Award in Brazil, Mexico and Ukraine, the release said.Browne served as deputy commissioner for public information for the New York City Police Department prior to taking his position at Notre Dame in July 2013.The press release said he also worked as press secretary and chief of staff for U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan and he took on similar roles at the U.S. Treasury Department, the New York State Court of Appeals and the New York State Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities.In the 1990s, Browne received the Commanders Award for Public Service for serving as deputy director of the International Police Monitors in Haiti, with the goal of ending human rights abuses in Haiti.Browne received a bachelor’s degree in American studies from Marist College and a master’s degree from the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. In his early career, he worked as a reporter for the Watertown Daily Times in upstate New York. He also worked as Albany bureau chief for the New York Daily News and the New York Law Journal and was a stringer for the New York Times.Jenkins reflected on Browne’s role over the course of his time at Notre Dame.“In his nearly eight years at Notre Dame, Paul has been a calm, thoughtful presence at the center of storms that sometimes envelop a university,” Jenkins said. “He has been an invaluable partner to me in crafting and communicating messages for the University.”Tags: Fr. John Jenkins, Paul J. Browne, public affairs and communications
January 1, 2021
The Vermont Council for Quality is pleased to announce that the VA Medical& Regional Office Center (VAM & ROC) in White River Junction is therecipient of the 2003 Governor’s Award for Performance Excellence.Governor James Douglas will honor the VA at the Vermont Council forQuality Annual Recognition and Award Ceremony hosted by NorwichUniversity, February 18, 2004.The Governor’s Award for PerformanceExcellence recognizes organizations in Vermont that successfully achieveperformance excellence within their management and operation. Awardrecipients undergo a series of in-depth assessments and evaluations byVermont Examiners that analyze productivity and organizationalperformance.”The Governor’s Award for Performance Excellence is the highest honor anorganization can receive for its organizational performance,” saidGovernor Douglas. “During these challenging fiscal times, it is refreshingto honor a health care organization for taking strides to improvemanagement and operational effectiveness while working toward the commongoal of ensuring Vermont maintains the health of its veterans and theirfamilies.””The entire workforce at our main campus in White River Junction and atour VA Community Based Outpatient Clinics in Bennington, Colchester,Littleton, NH and Rutland, deserves credit for this wonderfulrecognition,” said Gary DeGasta, Director of the VAM & ROC. “Theirdedication and commitment to continually improve quality of the healthcareand services we provide to Vermont and New Hampshire veterans areevidenced in the recognition this prestigious award bestows. TheGovernor’s Award is the hallmark of the White River Junction VA’s qualityimprovement journey. With the continued involvement and support of ourworkforce and our key customers and stakeholders, we remain committed toimprove our systems and processes and to better serve America’s Heroes -our deserving veterans.”The VA Medical & Regional Office Center, White River Junction wasestablished in 1937. The Medical Center is a 60-bed teaching hospitalaffiliated with the Dartmouth Medical School and the University of VermontCollege of Medicine as well as numerous other nursing and allied healthprograms. It provides primary and specialty acute care services to nearly22,000 Vermont and New Hampshire veterans. The Regional Office administersover $79 million in compensation & pension benefits/service annually toapproximately 9,200 beneficiaries.The White River Junction VAM & ROC has demonstrated a long-term commitmentto achieving performance excellence in all aspects of the organization.Through quality-minded leadership, a culture of continuous improvement,and dedicated staff, who maintain a strong focus on patient satisfaction,the Center has achieved role model practices and results in the keycategories of the Performance Excellence Criteria, based on the NationalMalcolm Baldrige Quality Award.Founded in 1996, the Vermont Council for Quality is a non-profit thathelps Vermont organizations improve performance and competitiveness. VCQ’sproducts and services include a comprehensive organizational assessmentthat identifies strengths and improvement opportunities and serves as thefoundation for the Vermont Council for Quality Award process. In addition,VCQ provides continuous improvement education and training, and brokersimprovement-related resources, information, knowledge, and best practiceswithin and between Vermont organizations.
December 31, 2020
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Asian Power:Japan’s distributed solar capacity is expected to become an increasingly important growth driver in its solar power sector over the coming decade as the country’s feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme for utility-scale projects is phased out amidst the underperformance of the competitive auctions mechanism, a report by Fitch Solutions revealed.The transition of projects with a capacity larger than 500kW as of 2019, to competitive auctions away from attractive FiTs, seeks to address the high costs associated with Japan’s renewables expansion. This comes especially as the idling of nuclear facilities following the Fukushima disaster, coupled with rising LNG and coal imports, have led to a spike in retail electricity prices.That said, Japan has struggled to manage the transition to an auctions system, with less capacity than expected having been awarded and cost deflation having been limited. In the country’s three first auctions, bids have trended at over $130/MWh (JPY14,200/MWh), which is substantially higher than comparably sized solar power markets, Fitch Solutions highlighted. The limited success was attributed to significant security deposit requirements, high labour costs, limitations to grid capacity availability and difficulties in acquiring land in suitable locations.Fitch Solutions also forecasts annual capacity additions to average 3.3GW between 2021 and 2024, which is a slowdown compared to the equivalent 5.5GW of added annual capacity forecasted over 2019 and 2020.“In large part, we expect distributed solar capacity to increasingly pick up the slack in Japan over the coming decade, with annual average capacity additions averaging 4GW between 2024 and 2028,” the firm highlighted.In line with increasing retail electricity prices, residential and commercial & industrial (C&I) consumers could look to deploy their own solar capacity in order to reduce their grid consumption and supply surplus generation back into the grid. Whilst the continued attractive FiT for solar installations smaller than 10kW could stimulate near-term growth in the segment, Fitch Solutions forecasts that both residential and C&I consumers will shift from grid-feed in towards self-consumption over the coming decade.More: Japan’s solar capacity to boom amidst FiT scheme phase-out Fitch analysis sees distributed solar driving Japanese market in the 2020s
December 20, 2020
By Julieta Pelcastre/Diálogo November 20, 2020 In response to a request from Honduras, as a member of the System of Cooperation Among the American Air Forces, the Colombian government deployed a Colombian Air Force (FAC, in Spanish) C-130 Hercules aircraft to deliver humanitarian aid to Honduras, to help the people affected by Hurricane Eta, which struck the nation on November 4, 2020.The aircraft, loaded with 11.5 tons of equipment and carrying a Colombian Civil Defense group, landed at the Honduran Air Force’s Armando Escalón Espinal Air Base in San Pedro Sula on November 12, said the Honduran National Defense Secretariat (SEDENA, in Spanish). Honduran presidential representative María Antonia Rivera received the Colombian delegation of 38 professionals, including medical, nursing, and rescue personnel.The Colombian Air Force evacuated 38 people from high-risk areas and delivered 5 tons of food during its first mission with a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter on November 14, 2020, following the passage of Hurricane Eta in Honduras. (Photo: Colombian Air Force)The equipment includes a field hospital to treat 250 low-complexity patients, a cabin for suspected COVID-19 patients, a unified command post, and autonomous water, electricity, and communications services, SEDENA said.On November 13, the second flight delivered three rescue boats and an all-terrain vehicle, the Colombian Ministry of Defense told the press.Colombia also mobilized a FAC UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter with rescuers and equipment to evacuate personnel in jungle areas, on the ground, and in open waters; and to assist with night vision goggles to provide 24-hour coverage for this operation, the FAC indicated on November 11.On its first rescue mission in Honduran territory, the Black Hawk crew delivered 5 tons of food and evacuated 38 people from high-risk areas, the FAC reported on November 14.According to the United Nations, Eta has been one of the most challenging hurricanes since Mitch, in 1998. In Honduras, at least 58 people died and more than 2 million people were affected by floods or collapses due to Eta, the Spanish newspaper La Vanguardia reported on November 19. Authorities have evacuated more than 88,000 people and rescued 50,000 others in different operations led by contingency teams from Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala, with the support of U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), in coordination with the Honduran Armed Forces.According to the Pan American Health Organization’s website, in recent decades, Honduras has been hit by several hurricanes, such as Gamma (2005), Beta (2005), Michelle (2001), Katrina (1999), and Mitch (1988). An increase in human settlements in high-risk areas, inappropriate use and deterioration of soil, and poverty among the Honduran population are determining factors in the disaster incidence caused by floods, the organization added.
December 18, 2020
As credit unions decide whether to support wearables, it is important to analyze the market and build a game plan for success.by: Shobhit Mathur, Ajay Yadav and Craig Besnoy, MindtreeThe official inauguration of Apple Watch brings great expectations inclusive of changing the way we think about how to gather data and turn it into information. Until now, achieving information gathering meant entering information via keyboard, voice or video. Now, we are embarking on a world of ‘sensor data’ and it suits consumers.More and more, bank and credit union customers prefer to bank wherever they are, using their smartphones, tablets or wearables as the remote control for their financial management. If consumers are using mobile-connected devices to streamline their to-dos, then what is next for these tiny, mobile computers? Proving their continued benefit for banks and financial institutions.For example, the Apple Watch puts sensors into the wrist of every user – stockbrokers will overlay their heart rate data on top of their trade data. continue reading » ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
December 18, 2020
17SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr As the leader of a public relations firm, I often find myself doing something. Whether it’s scrolling through TweetDeck, cranking out a blog post in the early morning, checking email while I’m waiting for my lunch or squeezing in one last conference call on my drive home – this is the substance of many days. Did you know that white-collar workers check email 74 times a day? Speaking of email, have you ever had a good idea while staring into the abyss of your inbox? I doubt it. But if we’re not careful, the constant dings of the alerts from texts, emails, and Facebook FB 1.24% messages will overwhelm our mental space with multitasking instead of creativity.What of productivity though? It’s requisite, but in a workplace like ours that relies on big ideas to introduce new thinking and innovations to the market, we don’t have the luxury of confusing productivity with creativity. The good news is that we don’t have to sacrifice one for the other.The bad news perhaps, is that we do have to let go of our attachment to the “badge of busyness.” We might as well trade our titles for the average number of emails we receive each day. It’s an all-too-luring marker of value for eager entry-level employees and top CEOs alike. Okay — so we’re not going to tear people away from their phones and laptops. We can, however, create a workplace culture that fosters the mental space required for big ideas. Even the smallest operational changes can have enormous impact. continue reading »
November 20, 2020
– Advertisement – Enter and exit your home easily with the Level Touch keyless door lock. This home gadget helps you avoid having to carry a key around with you. Instead, lock and unlock your main door using only your finger or a keycard. It’s not compatible with every finger, though, as you register fingerprints to the Level Touch. In fact, it’s equipped with plenty of safety features. This includes auto-lock technology that locks your door automatically after a selected delay. Also, you can see recent activity, including who’s coming and going from your home. Plus, the confirmation chime alerts you when your door locks and unlocks. Therefore, you’ll have peace of mind when you’re home alone. You can even send an invitation to a group of friends via e-mail, so they have easy access to your home. Overall, this is great for busy parents and moments when your hands are full.
October 19, 2020
Concerns in IndonesiaArticle One also investigated the impact of Facebook’s services — including WhatsApp, Messenger and Instagram — in Indonesia.It found that in addition to political attacks and attempts to influence elections, vulnerable groups across the sprawling archipelago faced increased risks.The sharing of images without consent, cyberbullying and sexual exploitation threatened women especially, the consultancy said.”In some cases, women are blackmailed or even forced into abusive relationships or into situations of rape to avoid the embarrassment of nude photos being made public on Facebook’s platform,” said the report, released at the same time as the findings on Sri Lanka.”In other cases, Facebook’s platforms have been used to connect customers to sex workers, some of whom may be trafficked.”Article One said it also “found evidence of online bullying and child sexual exploitation, including online grooming of children” on Facebook’s platforms.The social media company said that, like in Sri Lanka, it is ramping up efforts to protect its users from harm, including more staff and improved technology to identify hate speech in Indonesian.Facebook has been rolling out a number of programs to prevent misuse after coming under increasing pressure in recent years over a series of privacy scandals, as well as criticism of its slow response to human rights concerns. Facebook has apologized for its role in the deadly communal unrest that shook Sri Lanka two years ago after an investigation found that hate speech and rumors spread on the platform may have led to violence against Muslims.The riots in early 2018 erupted as anti-Muslim anger was whipped up on social media, forcing the Sri Lankan government to impose a state of emergency and block access to Facebook.The tech giant commissioned a probe into the part it may have played, and investigators said incendiary content on Facebook may have led to violence against Muslims. Topics : “We deplore the misuse of our platform,” Facebook said in a statement to Bloomberg News after the findings were released Tuesday. “We recognize, and apologize for, the very real human rights impacts that resulted.”At least three people were killed and 20 injured in the 2018 unrest, during which mosques and Muslim businesses were burned, mainly in the central part of the Sinhalese Buddhist-majority nation.The hate speech and rumors spread on Facebook “may have led to ‘offline’ violence”, according to Article One, the human rights consultancy hired to conduct the investigation.The consultants also suggested that before the unrest, Facebook had failed to take down such content, which “resulted in hate speech and other forms of harassment remaining and even spreading” on the platform. Article One said one civil society organization had tried to engage with the company on the misuse of Facebook as far back as 2009.In 2018, officials had said mobs used Facebook to coordinate attacks, and that the platform had “only two resource persons” to review content in Sinhala, the language of Sri Lanka’s ethnic majority whose members were behind the violence.Facebook has 4.4 million daily active users in Sri Lanka, according to the report by Article One.The firm said Tuesday it had taken a number of steps in the last two years to better protect human rights.”In Sri Lanka… we are reducing the distribution of frequently reshared messages, which are often associated with clickbait and misinformation,” Facebook said in a statement accompanying reports, which also looked at Indonesia and Cambodia.It said it had also hired more staff, including Sinhala speakers, and started using detection technology to protect vulnerable groups. — Bloomberg News contributed to this story —